In theory, you should be able to go into the settings menu and increase the size of the apps icons. However, Google has not made that option available to Android users yet. See also How to minimise data on Android.
The solution to making app icons bigger is to download an app. What the Giganticon app does is let you create multiple widgets that open apps and use existing app artwork. The beauty of creating a widget that links to an app is you can press and hold on the widget and resize it on the fly.
How to make icons bigger on Android: Step one
First, go to the Google Play store on your device and download the free app Giganticon.
How to make icons bigger on Android: Step two
One you have downloaded this app, you need to go through the process of adding a widget to the home screen. In Android 4.4 Kitkat this can be done by bringing up the main apps menu and swiping right until you are in the widgets menu.
From here you need to grab the Giganticon widget and drag it on to your home screen.
How to make icons bigger on Android: Step three
A new windows will appear listing all of your apps. Simply chose the app you want by tapping on it. The new widget will then import the app’s icon image and display it in the widget.
Note: To make this widget even bigger, press and hold on the icon you will be given resizing options.
That's all there is to it, and you can create as many widgets as will fit on your home screens.