Have you tried, during boot, pressing (I think, although I know it seems to be different motherboard to motherboard) F8 and accessing the boot menu? You could try loading the Last Known Good Configuration from there.
Failing that, the only wasy of identifying the drive is to either access the BIOS and get the make / model from there, or physically remove it and have a look. Other than that it sounds like you're on the right track. You ned to get the SATA drivers on a floppy, then follow the on screen prompts during booting from the XP disc.