You need a domain name and a web host.
Web site hosts allow you to keep your site on their web servers which makes the pages available to anyone who wants to access it by typing in the correct address.
There are a lot of options out there and it can all be a bit confusing when you first begin, but there is also a great deal of help and assistance available for you to get up and running. This site is a good place to ask questions, as if you didn't already know.
Take a look at 1&1, Easily and FastHosts at the following three links:
They all offer quick startup packages for web newbies along with site/page templates for you to put your own text and images onto pages that already have the navigation links and layouts prepared for you. They are fine for beginners through to reasonably demanding and advanced sites, but if you ever get really serious you will want to consider top notch hosting from any one of a number of other providers. The above will certainly get you up and running out of the blocks with the minimum of fuss.
The domain name you choose is registered in your name for a varying amount of time at a quite nominal cost, and you can find full details on the above three sites of how much these charges are to register your domain as well as how much the hosting is.
Getting high ratings in search engines is another matter entirely and there really is not sufficient space to cover this in full here.
Suffice to say that the best way of getting people to visit your site is to include its address on business cards, letterheads, fliers and other stationary, and to have other site visitors talk about it and pass on its address to other people.
Many smaller sites can benefit from a system called web-rings, where sites of a similar type link to one another. Web rings are useful when you are starting out, since they concentrate on channelling site visitors who are interested in a quite specific given subject (say pencil portrait artwork for example) to yours and the other sites that belong to the web ring. If site A, B and C are all members of your web ring, visitors to any one of them can jump to any of the others at the click of a mouse. It can be useful in some respects for generating traffic in your early days. Of course, it can also have the opposite effect where people can find an easy way to leave your site to visit someone leases, but by and large it can still help new or very specialist sites generate traffic.
If you have specific questions, don't hesitate to ask, but a look at the above three links should give you some information to work with and at least give you some ideas of costs and similar.
I hope this helps and doesn't just muddy the waters for you, but if you are stumped at all, post another question and one of us will try and walk you through things.
Good luck !