I tried doing exactly the same thing as you once, with exactly the same result that you got. So far as I can tell, the only way to get your old contacts, inbox, sent items, etc. etc. back into a newly installed Outlook is to export them from the old installation to a .csv file and then reimport them to the new installation. (See: File>Import/Export). From your post I suspect that this suggestion is probably too late for you.
Someone more expert than me may have a solution for you, but if not.....!