# Newton's Fluxions

Wilham 23:18 12 Jul 04
Locked

Is it easy to print a dot over a lower case character when I send an email? Will the recipient see it as such, for instance if I used it in this thread?

If anyone is interested...
The need for dots came when I saw Newton's 2nd law of motion in a tech mag as F=ma and I wanted to write a criticism, it is not what Newton wrote. My blood pressure rose a bit, and went higher when I looked it up in Cambridge Enc'r 4th ed'n to find the same error. Then Enc'r Brit'a, and I was out-of-step with the world.
They're all wrong, of course. The 2'nd law was published 1686/7 in Latin, where Newton expresses it as Force = rate of change of momentum. (Except mass times velocity was then called motion)
Newton's mathematical notation is beautiful. Called fluxions, a dot over a symbol meant its rate of change. So a distance x with a dot on top showed speed. Two dots above x, like a German umlaut, shows acceleration.
If u is momentum then Newton's 2nd law would be put by him as F=u with a dot over the u. Isn't this delightful compared with modern (Leibniz) F= du/dt? And the double dot when put in Leibniz form is even more untidy.

F=ma doesn't help with mechanics of (say) a rocket which changes both m and v in its motion. Or a simple water jet hitting a wall.

The useful form of the 2nd law is F= mv + mv with dots over the first v and the second m.
Hope of interest to someone...

Now how do I put a dot over v ?

VoG II 23:22 12 Jul 04

Very interesting but:

1) Try using the character map - should be in Accessories/System tools

2) My preferred method would be to use Word and then use the Equation Editor. Insert/Object and follow the wizard.

VoG II 23:26 12 Jul 04

You don't happen to know the particle size distribution of water droplets in a domestic shower, do you? Perfectly serious question.

Wilham 23:34 12 Jul 04

VoG™; thanks for that. Is it always wysiwyg when
it comes out the other end?
I'm thinking of the bother we sometimes have with £the £ sign.

VoG II 23:37 12 Jul 04

If you use the Equation Editor - yes it is wysiwig. I use it "all the time" - chemistry rather than physics but that makes no difference, it is all equations :o(

Wilham 23:49 12 Jul 04

VoG™. As a mean and standard deviation? No. Too many variables. Below a certain size they explode, so not gaussian. Explosion diam depends on humidity and surface tension (and dust).Wilson cloud chamber?
Some years ago I wanted to diplay a moving message with droplets using multiple pulsed jets.Might look at it again,- have a lot on though.

phenyl5 23:53 12 Jul 04

Wilham
I love Newton - irascible swine but top scientist - OK philosopher - of all time? I did not like his notation; dots and such are a menace. But in your defence I see your point as I write in German and prefer für/Männer/hören/Spaß as opposed to fuer/Maenner/hoeren/Spass which looks ugly.

So perhaps it's what you get use to? Whilst you are looking for ways of making dots over things I want ways of raising numbers to powers and raising that number to a power. Can use 2^2 [= 4]& 2^2^2
[= 16]etc but do not want to use ^. In these emails: ctrl & arrow up & + all held together does not work [in word works giving y^x]. So for once simple handwritten numbers raised to any number of powers beats the good old PC!

Eargasm 23:54 12 Jul 04

Can anyone explain what they are on about?

Djohn 23:59 12 Jul 04

Isn't it truly amazing what some of our forum members do for a living. Their knowledge is vast and varied! I don't know how they find the time to help us with our PC's. :o)

phenyl5 00:00 13 Jul 04

It's a serious question. How can I do on the PC then email it to a site like this what I find simple to do, with paper and pencil?
e.g. 2 raised to 2 which is already raised to 2. Dammit I can't write it to show you. There must be simple ways for all complicated things and I am missing it!

Pesala 00:00 13 Jul 04

or another one that support Unicode UTF8.

That will offer all the options you need for mathematical notation. This is dot over ? but it may not display here correctly ṅ. It is Unicode codepoint 7749. Download Babelmap click here to find other characters or look at insert symbol in Word with the Lucida Sans Unicode font.

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