It appears that you have set up the PC's email program to send and receive mail using your actual account with Vodafone - their mail servers on the internet, not your phone.
I suspect you have two options - (1) to use their IMAP4 and SMTP mail servers as you would with any ISP to receive and send mail by connecting to the internet with the PC and (2) possibly also to "synchronise" mail between Outlook and the phone. Messages previously "syncd" could then be sent directly from the phone.
Also, you can probably use the phone as a modem with the PC so that mail can be received/sent with the phone establishing the internet connection. In this case, the phone is not sending or receiving mail, it is just transferring data as would a normal modem.