Is the BIOS reverting to default settings?
Turn on legacy and turn off safe/secure boot etc, and then power down for a few minutes. Check again they haven't changed.
I wonder if it's some problem with MBR/GPT/UEFI setup of new partitions and gparted hasn't handled it properly.
MiniTool Partition Wizard Bootable CD is a more Windows like tool and may help.
Sadly, I haven't messed around with GPT and UEFI systems so save Googling, I can't help more.
click here be aware that just because you HDD is sometimes recognised doesn't mean it is fully working.
You did hear a noise and have a sudden shutdown.
Something has happened.