I don't know how you would do it in one operation. From the Start, Search dialogue you can search the hard drive for all images of a particular file type, e.g. JPG, BMP, WMF, PCX, PNG, TIF, ICO, etc., but there are lots of different image types. Just check the file types box on the search dialogue and see the long list of file types that is displayed: there may be more than a hundred - not only images.
Irfan View's click here thumbnail browser will help you browse your disk manually, showing all supported images, but that would take ages on most hard drives.