I think you will seriously struggle to do this.
Gracenote and so on use info about the file size and combinations of files to work out which albums and tracks are bening sent to it. When you digitise an LP it's inconceivable that you will create the same file sizes as on the CD version of the same thing.
I don't know what software you use to copy the LP's and then create the CD, but perhaps that has a CD label printer.
I use Acoustica CD label maker. It's not free, but it's very good.
to get album covers onto the CD I either photographed the sleeve (front and back), or scanned the sleeve in two halves for each of the front and the back and joined them in Paint Shop Pro - aboutb half an hour's work per sleeve!